## Introduction

Polynomial regression is a method of least-square curve fitting. It will take a set of data and produce an approximation. More specifically, it will produce the coefficients to a polynomial that is an approximation of the curve. The number of coefficients can determine the degree of the polynomial and how accurate the curve can be fit. A degree of zero (1 coefficient) is a simple mean average. First degree (2 coefficients) is also known as linear regression. Second and higher degrees will produce non-linear polynomial regression.

Not all data sets can be accurately modeled with polynomial regression regardless of the degree polynomial selected. It helps to have an understanding of the origin of the data and the function attempting to be modeled. Polynomials are one method of curve fitting. Some other methods are implemented with the Gauss-Newton class.

### Linearized Regression

There are some non-linear functions that can be linearized and then solved with polynomial regression. There has been a fair amount of interest in having these functions, so they have been added to a second package called Linearized Regression. The non-linear functions implemented are:

These classes are in beta. More testing is needed to determine if this is the best way to add this functionality. In addition, the beta versions do not use BC math. There is little risk of overflow in most applications since these equations are solved as 1st degree polynomials.

### Weighted Regression

Weighted regression is a method by which some input terms are considered more strongly than others. It can be applied to any regression method. Each input term is assigned a weight. If the weights are all equal then the results are the same as unweighted regression. For more information on the mathematics of weighted regression refer to this write-up.

The key to weighting is to register a weighting technique. These are classes that implement the interface Weighting. Three such classes are provided:

In addition the weighting interface is very simple and new custom methods of weighting can easily be added.

### Requirnments

Polynomial regression requires PHP 5.0 or above, since the code is entirely object-oriented. PHP must be compiled with BC math library, which is standard with most builds of PHP. The use of BC arbitrary precision arithmetic is almost always necessary for regression of degrees higher then 4, or data sets with thousands of points. The numbers simply get very large or very small and exceed what can be represented by conventional floating-point values.

## Manual

Documentation is available online, generated from the source code using phpDocumentor. The documentation can be recreated from the source if needed.

### Current versions

Version 1.2.1, Released Feburary 17, 2015.

• Added support for weighted regression.
• Added 3 linearizable regression functions.
• Bug fix to LinearWeighting added in 1.2.1.

### BZip 2 (Linux)

MD5: d3bc84c6445a8d77e78ed1a1c64392a4

SHA1: 4229b43d7f0d87f6d5e608570373e38cabd82d52

### Zip (Others)

MD5: db5ecefe1e98d93f92515e409c53402f

## From S Rahul Bose

### India

#### January 12, 2014 at 10:25 PM

I was looking for a PHP class that can solve regression data.

PolynomialRegression works perfect.

Thank you for your work and time :-)

## From Debabrata Kar

### Bhubaneswar, India

#### March 27, 2014 at 10:57 AM

A minor modification to your way of showing the functionText.

\$functionText = "f(x) = ";

foreach(\$coefficients as \$power => \$coefficient)

{

if(\$power > 0)

\$functionText .= (\$coefficient > 0) ? "  " : " - ";

\$functionText .= abs(round(\$coefficient, 4));

if (\$power > 0)

{

\$functionText .= "x";

if (\$power > 1)

\$functionText .= "^" . \$power;

}

}

This shows the function in a better manner when any coefficient turns out as negative.

Thanks.

## From Osman Kalache

### Algeria

#### May 07, 2014 at 10:52 AM

Thanks for the class Andrew, i've made the interpolate() method static, so it does not require an object when we want to run it independently.

## From Diego

### Spain

#### June 03, 2014 at 5:12 AM

Very useful library! I'm having some problems calculating some third degree coeficiente, But surely err is on my side :-)

If not,  I will come back seeking help.

Have you think in hosting your code on Github? Surely it could benefit from others collaborations.

## From Gary Hvizdak

### Melbourne FL

#### September 18, 2014 at 2:24 PM

I'm struggling to figure out the format of the input data.  :(

## From Iv

### England

#### December 30, 2015 at 1:52 PM

Brilliant work Andrew! Very useful classes for people like me who don't have the background or skill in stats to create these functions from scratch. However, please can you update your plot.php enabled examples on your polynomialregression web page with your "cleaned-up" function and class names?

1. All of your class functions names in plot.php vs XY_Plot.php are now lower case on first letter

2. Your class name is now Plot_XY not Plot_XYClass in the first polynomial example

3. Just like I might do - you have spelled "extension" as "extention" for the function setX_MajorDivisionExtension in the XY_Plot class.

Please can you modify these in webpage and plot.php?

Thank you again for your effort in creating these very useful classes for the community. As another commenter has stated you could put these onto github to get wider credit for your work.

## From 我爱学习

### China

#### December 08, 2016 at 7:50 PM

As a scholar. This is a really brilliant tool for me. love it!!

## From Valentin Fuchs

### Landshut, Germany

#### December 18, 2016 at 10:06 AM

Worked perfectly fine for me.

But it´s difficult to use for a novice like me, especially since it depends on a cluster of additional classes which refer to each other.

## From Walter74

### Chamonix, France

#### January 03, 2017 at 10:32 AM

Hi,

Am stuck on these 3 lines:

require_once ('RootDirectory.inc.php');

\$RootDirectory = "./";

require_once (\$RootDirectory.'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php');

The following errors crop up:

PHP Warning:  require_once(RootDirectory.inc.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory

PHP Fatal error:  require_once(): Failed opening required 'RootDirectory.inc.php' (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php55/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php55/usr/share/php')

Any help gratefully received. Thanks, Walter

## From Walter74

### Chamonix, France

#### January 04, 2017 at 5:25 AM

Hi,

Please ignore my previous post!! New to 'require_once' with the CPanel although come across it with the Arduino & RaspberryPi. In the end I loaded the files into the public_html folder manually.

First time with C or C++ so have been having to suss out the system. As a word of warning to Novices if you copy Andrew's ideas from this page any 'spaces' have to be redone using your SpaceBar. Could someone let me know why.

Managed to replicate the Linear Regression example. Yippee.

Thanks Andrew for your hard work. Walter

## From Anon

### PH

#### February 19, 2017 at 2:47 AM

Hi, is there a way I can add more independent variables (x) on my data for multiple polynomial regression. How? Thank you!!!!

## From Walter74

### Chamonix, France

#### March 15, 2017 at 11:12 AM

Hi,

While checking some 2nd degree polynomial R²s produced using your Code against Excel values, I came across some anomalies when a set of data contained a number of values smaller than 0.0001 . However, these anomalies disappeared when I set the bcMaths to bcscale(20).

One example: 0.7142 compared toan Excel value of 0.9629

Hope this is helpful & thanks again.

Yours, Walter

## From MANUEL FERNANDEZ (http://www.consuvet.com/poly/polinomial3.php)

### SPAIN

#### December 04, 2018 at 3:30 PM

In first instance congratulations for the code and examples.

I´ve tried to implement it but I needed to aply changes seen in previous posts. Agree maybe github would be a good idea.

As you can see in https://consuvet.com/poly/polinomial3.php I get an error of: the image can´t be displayed because it contains errors. Any idea why?

I added  error_reporting(0);  in case errors didn´t allow the png to be displayed. I would thank any clue.

I´m trying to implement regresion to try to interpolate beef growth data in a function.

## From Stanislav Medvedev

### Kazakhstan, Almaty

#### September 27, 2019 at 10:57 AM

Didn't expect to find such a great thing at so old-fashioned site.

Respect! It is a slighly nostalgic, but very impressive. It is a great proof that appearance has nothing to do with great content.

I was finding a whole internet for polynomial regression php realization and found it here. Thank you!

## From Angular 2 Training in Bangalore (http://infocampus.co.in/)

### Bangalore

#### October 24, 2019 at 6:39 AM

Nice Post. it's very useful information

## From Python Training in Bangalore (http://infocampus.co.in/)

### Bangalore

#### November 13, 2019 at 3:52 AM

Wonderful post! We are linking to this great post on our website. Keep up the great writing.

## Installation

• PolynomialRegression
• LinearizedRegression
• Weighting

These are designed to be unpacked into a directory called Includes. If you are only using the base class PolynomialRegression, you can place PolynomialRegression.php wherever you like as it does not include any other files.

The file RootDirectory.inc.php defines a variable called \$RootDirectory that contains either the absolute or relative path. The paths for the rest of the files are all based on this. This file must exist in any path that includes these classes (with the exception of PolynomialRegression). The file should look something like this:

``` <?php    \$RootDirectory = "./"; ?> ```

This include system allows PHP code to exist in any number of sub- directories and always correctly resolve the path to include files. If you do not like this style of relative paths, or have an other convention you use, you can modify the first couple lines of each class and manually place files where you desire them.

## Examples

Several of these example include some functions from plot.php. It uses XY Plot to draw charts.

### Linear Regression.

Linear regression is one of the simplest forms of polynomial regression. It produces a 1st degree polynomial with the two coefficients usually called slope and intercept.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.00, 27.3834562958158 ), array( 0.02, 38.2347360741764 ),       array( 0.04, 42.5632501679666 ), array( 0.06, 19.4638760104114 ),       array( 0.08, 42.690858098909  ), array( 0.10, 25.330634164557  ),       array( 0.12, 49.6507591632989 ), array( 0.14, 34.3502467856792 ),       array( 0.16, 52.5267153107089 ), array( 0.18, 34.5528919545231 ),       array( 0.20, 44.3220950255077 ), array( 0.22, 44.7805694031715 ),       array( 0.24, 32.9090525820585 ), array( 0.26, 56.7941323051778 ),       array( 0.28, 48.7192221569495 ), array( 0.30, 48.7964850888813 ),       array( 0.32, 56.8905173101315 ), array( 0.34, 66.0107252116092 ),       array( 0.36, 74.3149331561425 ), array( 0.38, 52.9076168019644 ),       array( 0.40, 64.3463647026162 ), array( 0.42, 50.0776706625628 ),       array( 0.44, 62.3527806092493 ), array( 0.46, 75.9589658430523 ),       array( 0.48, 69.280743962744  ), array( 0.50, 74.4868159870338 ),       array( 0.52, 76.4548504742096 ), array( 0.54, 82.9347555390181 ),       array( 0.56, 83.9546576353049 ), array( 0.58, 83.6379624022705 ),       array( 0.60, 92.6278811310654 ), array( 0.62, 84.3395153143048 ),       array( 0.64, 86.832363003336  ), array( 0.66, 105.66563124607  ),       array( 0.68, 100.175129109663 ), array( 0.70, 82.0781941886623 ),       array( 0.72, 95.9916212989616 ), array( 0.74, 87.5853932119967 ),       array( 0.76, 93.5435091554247 ), array( 0.78, 98.0622114645327 ),       array( 0.80, 118.067000253198 ), array( 0.82, 98.2918886287489 ),       array( 0.84, 111.027863906934 ), array( 0.86, 113.1135947538   ),       array( 0.88, 117.777915259186 ), array( 0.90, 108.621331147219 ),       array( 0.92, 112.979639159754 ), array( 0.94, 122.065499190418 ),       array( 0.96, 116.136221596622 ), array( 0.98, 111.215762010712 ),       array( 1.00, 122.743302375187 )     );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Start a regression class of order 2--linear regression.   \$PolynomialRegression = new PolynomialRegression( 2 );   // Add all the data to the regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )     \$PolynomialRegression->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients = \$PolynomialRegression->getCoefficients();   // Print slope and intercept of linear regression.   echo "Slope : " . round( \$coefficients[ 1 ], 2 ) . "<br />";   echo "Y-intercept : " . round( \$coefficients[ 0 ], 2 ) . "<br />"; ?> ```

In this example, 50 data points are used to construct linear regression. The slope and y-intercept of the trend are then displayed. The image above was created in a spreadsheet with the data points from the example. The linear regression trend line is displayed, along with the trend line's function.

Slope : 95.75
Y-intercept : 26.55

This is the output from the example. Note how the slope and intercept values match those of the function in the spreadsheet created chart.

There is not much reason to use this library to compute linear-regression as there are far faster implementations. However for data sets that have very large numbers or when high accuracy is needed this library may be useful.

### Third Degree Polynomial.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/plot.php' );   // Data created in a spreadsheet with some random scatter.  True function should be:   //   f( x ) = 0.65 + 0.6 x - 6.25 x^2 + 6 x^3   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.00, 0.65646507 ), array( 0.05, 0.61435503 ),       array( 0.10, 0.63151965 ), array( 0.15, 0.57711365 ),       array( 0.20, 0.58534249 ), array( 0.25, 0.54148715 ),       array( 0.30, 0.43877649 ), array( 0.35, 0.39516968 ),       array( 0.40, 0.24977940 ), array( 0.45, 0.24246690 ),       array( 0.50, 0.07730788 ), array( 0.55, 0.03633931 ),       array( 0.60, 0.08980716 ), array( 0.65, 0.07562991 ),       array( 0.70, 0.11196788 ), array( 0.75, 0.15086596 ),       array( 0.80, 0.19979455 ), array( 0.85, 0.34683801 ),       array( 0.90, 0.48338650 ), array( 0.95, 0.59196113 ),       array( 1.00, 0.99233320 )   );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Start a regression class with a maximum of 4rd degree polynomial.   \$polynomialRegression = new PolynomialRegression( 4 );   // Add all the data to the regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )     \$polynomialRegression->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   // Add raw data to plot.   plotRenderData( \$data, \$colorMap[ "Red" ] );   \$plot->setX_Span( 0, 1 );   \$plot->setY_Span( 0, 1 );   \$Y_MajorScale   = 0.1;   \$Y_MinorScale   = \$Y_MajorScale / 5;   \$X_MajorScale   = 0.1;   \$X_MinorScale   = \$X_MajorScale / 5;   plotAddScale();   // Render the points to image   \$plot->setCircleSize( 8 );   \$plot->renderPoints();   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients = \$polynomialRegression->getCoefficients();   \$functionText = "f( x ) = ";   foreach ( \$coefficients as \$power => \$coefficient )   {     if ( \$power > 0 )       \$functionText .= " + ";     \$functionText .= round( \$coefficient, 2 );     if ( \$power > 0 )     {       \$functionText .= "x";       if ( \$power > 1 )         \$functionText .= "^" . \$power;     }   }   // Place text   imageString   (     \$image,     2,     \$leftMargin + 2,     \$topMargin + 2,     \$functionText,     \$colorMap[ "Black" ]   );   plotRenderRegression( \$polynomialRegression, \$coefficients, 0, 1, \$colorMap[ "LightRed" ] );   // Output image   header( "Content-Type: image/png" );   imagePNG( \$image ); ?> ```

This example starts with the knowledge the data was generated by some function that is a 3rd degree polynomial. The data is formed by 21 samples close to the function f( x ) = 6 x3 - 6.25 x2 + 0.6 x + 0.65 with some random noise added. The regression analysis attempts to reconstruct the coefficients of the original function. The graph shows the input data as red circles, and the regression plot as the red line. The function with the interpolated coefficients is printed at the top. The coefficients of this function are fairly close to the original.

### Calculating R-Squared.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.00, 27.3834562958158 ), array( 0.02, 38.2347360741764 ),       array( 0.04, 42.5632501679666 ), array( 0.06, 19.4638760104114 ),       array( 0.08, 42.690858098909  ), array( 0.10, 25.330634164557  ),       array( 0.12, 49.6507591632989 ), array( 0.14, 34.3502467856792 ),       array( 0.16, 52.5267153107089 ), array( 0.18, 34.5528919545231 ),       array( 0.20, 44.3220950255077 ), array( 0.22, 44.7805694031715 ),       array( 0.24, 32.9090525820585 ), array( 0.26, 56.7941323051778 ),       array( 0.28, 48.7192221569495 ), array( 0.30, 48.7964850888813 ),       array( 0.32, 56.8905173101315 ), array( 0.34, 66.0107252116092 ),       array( 0.36, 74.3149331561425 ), array( 0.38, 52.9076168019644 ),       array( 0.40, 64.3463647026162 ), array( 0.42, 50.0776706625628 ),       array( 0.44, 62.3527806092493 ), array( 0.46, 75.9589658430523 ),       array( 0.48, 69.280743962744  ), array( 0.50, 74.4868159870338 ),       array( 0.52, 76.4548504742096 ), array( 0.54, 82.9347555390181 ),       array( 0.56, 83.9546576353049 ), array( 0.58, 83.6379624022705 ),       array( 0.60, 92.6278811310654 ), array( 0.62, 84.3395153143048 ),       array( 0.64, 86.832363003336  ), array( 0.66, 105.66563124607  ),       array( 0.68, 100.175129109663 ), array( 0.70, 82.0781941886623 ),       array( 0.72, 95.9916212989616 ), array( 0.74, 87.5853932119967 ),       array( 0.76, 93.5435091554247 ), array( 0.78, 98.0622114645327 ),       array( 0.80, 118.067000253198 ), array( 0.82, 98.2918886287489 ),       array( 0.84, 111.027863906934 ), array( 0.86, 113.1135947538   ),       array( 0.88, 117.777915259186 ), array( 0.90, 108.621331147219 ),       array( 0.92, 112.979639159754 ), array( 0.94, 122.065499190418 ),       array( 0.96, 116.136221596622 ), array( 0.98, 111.215762010712 ),       array( 1.00, 122.743302375187 )     );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Start a regression class of order 2--linear regression.   \$leastSquareRegression = new PolynomialRegression( 2 );   // Add all the data to the regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )     \$leastSquareRegression->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients = \$leastSquareRegression->getCoefficients();   // Print slope and intercept of linear regression.   echo "Slope : " . round( \$coefficients[ 1 ], 2 ) . "<br />\n";   echo "Y-intercept : " . round( \$coefficients[ 0 ], 2 ) . "<br />\n";   //   // Get average of Y-data.   //   \$Y_Average = 0.0;   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )     \$Y_Average += \$dataPoint[ 1 ];   \$Y_Average /= count( \$data );   //   // Calculate R Squared.   //   \$Y_MeanSum  = 0.0;   \$Y_ErrorSum = 0.0;   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )   {     \$x = \$dataPoint[ 0 ];     \$y = \$dataPoint[ 1 ];     \$error  = \$y;     \$error -= \$leastSquareRegression->interpolate( \$coefficients, \$x );     \$Y_ErrorSum += \$error * \$error;     \$error  = \$y;     \$error -= \$Y_Average;     \$Y_MeanSum += \$error * \$error;   }   \$R_Squared = 1.0 - ( \$Y_ErrorSum / \$Y_MeanSum );   echo "R Squared : \$R_Squared<br />\n"; ?> ```

This example shows how to compute the C oefficient of determination (generally called R-Squared) after the coefficients have been calculated. This value is one representation of the goodness of fit. The closer this value is to 1.0, the better the fit.

Slope : 95.75
Y-intercept : 26.55
R Squared : 0.92618245728437

### Linear Regression with Forced Intercept.

There are times when it is known that the intercept of the function is zero, but the calculated coefficient for the offset is not. For this one can use the function setForcedCoefficient( 0, 0 ). This is a typical example involving linear regression of a noisy set of data points.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/plot.php' );   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.05, 0.1924787314 ), array( 0.10, 0.4586186921 ),       array( 0.15, 0.1318838557 ), array( 0.20, 0.1865927433 ),       array( 0.25, 0.4667421897 ), array( 0.30, 0.1027880072 ),       array( 0.35, 0.5599968985 ), array( 0.40, 0.6605423892 ),       array( 0.45, 0.620103306  ), array( 0.50, 0.4445367125 ),       array( 0.55, 0.5912679423 ), array( 0.60, 0.7942020837 ),       array( 0.65, 0.8694575373 ), array( 0.70, 0.4146043937 ),       array( 0.75, 0.6604661468 ), array( 0.80, 0.9138025779 ),       array( 0.85, 0.8124334151 ), array( 0.90, 0.7998087715 ),       array( 0.95, 0.7391285236 ), array( 1.00, 0.9012208138 ),     );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Add raw data to plot.   plotRenderData( \$data, \$colorMap[ "Red" ] );   \$plot->setX_Span( 0, 1 );   \$plot->setY_Span( 0, 1 );   plotAddScale();   // Render the points to image   \$plot->setCircleSize( 8 );   \$plot->renderPoints();   // Start a regression class of order 4, one with no forcing coefficients,   // one with two forced coefficients.   \$regression1 = new PolynomialRegression( 2 );   \$regression2 = new PolynomialRegression( 2 );   \$regression2->setForcedCoefficient( 0, 0 );   // Add all the data to both regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )   {     \$regression1->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );     \$regression2->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   }   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients1 = \$regression1->getCoefficients();   \$coefficients2 = \$regression2->getCoefficients();   // Plot each of the curves.   plotRenderRegression( \$regression1, \$coefficients1, 0, 1, \$colorMap[ "Green" ] );   plotRenderRegression( \$regression2, \$coefficients2, 0, 1, \$colorMap[ "LightBlue" ] );   // Output image   header( "Content-Type: image/png" );   imagePNG( \$image ); ?> ``` In the graph, the green line shows linear-regression where the blue line shows linear regression with the intercept forced to zero. The actual slope is 1, but there is a very small signal-to-noise-ratio.

### Forced coefficients.

In addition to being able to force a zero offset, it is possible to set any coefficient to a known value. This will allow the other coefficients to be determined by the regression analysis. Thus if it is known that one of the coefficients must be a specific value, the remaining coefficients will take this into account.

As with forcing an intercept, the function setForcedCoefficient is used. The first parameter is witch coefficient is to be forced to the known value, and the second parameter is the value. More than one coefficient may be forced if desired.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/plot.php' );   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.00, 0.65379741 ), array( 0.05, 0.64074062 ),       array( 0.10, 0.72833783 ), array( 0.15, 0.44629689 ),       array( 0.20, 0.45174500 ), array( 0.25, 0.34161602 ),       array( 0.30, 0.78621158 ), array( 0.35, 0.38960121 ),       array( 0.40, 0.14126441 ), array( 0.45, 0.38123106 ),       array( 0.50, 0.20605429 ), array( 0.55, 0.02456525 ),       array( 0.60, 0.48434811 ), array( 0.65, 0.21453304 ),       array( 0.70, 0.54765807 ), array( 0.75, 0.41625294 ),       array( 0.80, 0.78163483 ), array( 0.85, 0.71306009 ),       array( 0.90, 0.53515664 ), array( 0.95, 0.98918384 ),       array( 1.00, 0.93061202 )     );   // The actual coefficients for the above data (without noise).   \$trueCoefficients = array( 0.9, -2, 0.6, 1.5 );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Add raw data to plot.   plotRenderData( \$data, \$colorMap[ "Red" ] );   \$plot->setX_Span( 0, 1 );   \$plot->setY_Span( 0, 1 );   plotAddScale();   // Render the points to image   \$plot->setCircleSize( 4 );   \$plot->renderPoints();   // Start a regression class of order 4, one with no forcing coefficients,   // one with two forced coefficients.   \$regression1 = new PolynomialRegression( 4 );   \$regression2 = new PolynomialRegression( 4 );   \$regression2->setForcedCoefficient( 1, -2 );   \$regression2->setForcedCoefficient( 3, 1.5 );   // Add all the data to both regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )   {     \$regression1->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );     \$regression2->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   }   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients1 = \$regression1->getCoefficients();   \$coefficients2 = \$regression2->getCoefficients();   // Plot each of the curves.   plotRenderRegression( \$regression1, \$trueCoefficients, 0, 1, \$colorMap[ "LightRed" ] );   plotRenderRegression( \$regression1, \$coefficients1, 0, 1, \$colorMap[ "Green" ] );   plotRenderRegression( \$regression2, \$coefficients2, 0, 1, \$colorMap[ "LightBlue" ] );   \$y = \$imageHeight - \$bottomMargin;   printFunction( \$y, 3, \$colorMap[ "LightRed" ], \$trueCoefficients );   printFunction( \$y, 2, \$colorMap[ "Green" ], \$coefficients1 );   printFunction( \$y, 1, \$colorMap[ "LightBlue" ], \$coefficients2 );   // Output image   header( "Content-Type: image/png" );   imagePNG( \$image ); function printFunction( \$y, \$line, \$color, \$coefficients ) {   global \$image;   global \$leftMargin;   \$functionText = "f( x ) = ";   foreach ( \$coefficients as \$power => \$coefficient )   {     if ( \$power > 0 )       \$functionText .= " + ";     \$functionText .= number_format( \$coefficient, 2 );     if ( \$power > 0 )     {       \$functionText .= "x";       if ( \$power > 1 )         \$functionText .= "^" . \$power;     }   }   // Place text   imageString   (     \$image,     2,     \$leftMargin + 2,     \$y - \$line * imagefontheight( 2 ),     \$functionText,     \$color   ); } ?> ```

In this example regression is preformed on a 3rd degree polynomial set of noisy data. The true coefficients are (0.9, -2, 0.6, 1.5). The coefficients are first determined without any forced terms, and then by forcing two of the terms to known values. The graph displays the input data as red circles. The red line is the true curve. The green line is the regression with no known coefficients, and the blue line is the regression with two forced coefficients. As expected, the blue line conforms more closely to the true curve represented by the red line.

### Linearized Regression.

The linearized regression classes are children of the polynomial regression class and overload some of the functions in order to preform linearization. So their operation is almost identical to the polynomial regression class.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/LinearizedRegression/ExpRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/plot.php' );   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.00, 0.024094775  ), array( 0.05, 0.0390894172 ),       array( 0.10, 0.0524281705 ), array( 0.15, 0.0094749558 ),       array( 0.20, 0.1342814605 ), array( 0.25, 0.0181198568 ),       array( 0.30, 0.032552131  ), array( 0.35, 0.0227223143 ),       array( 0.40, 0.1169744975 ), array( 0.45, 0.1226243145 ),       array( 0.50, 0.1427587983 ), array( 0.55, 0.1497210208 ),       array( 0.60, 0.1727192031 ), array( 0.65, 0.3031739468 ),       array( 0.70, 0.2400640511 ), array( 0.75, 0.3650339253 ),       array( 0.80, 0.4659496711 ), array( 0.85, 0.5082614871 ),       array( 0.90, 0.6841058006 ), array( 0.95, 0.7940730517 ),     );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Add raw data to plot.   plotRenderData( \$data, \$colorMap[ "Red" ] );   \$plot->setX_Span( 0, 1 );   \$plot->setY_Span( 0, 1 );   plotAddScale();   // Render the points to image   \$plot->setCircleSize( 8 );   \$plot->renderPoints();   // Create instance of linearized regression.   \$regression = new ExpRegression();   // Add all the data to both regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )     \$regression->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   // Get the resulting coefficients.   \$coefficients = \$regression->getCoefficients();   // Plot each of the curves.   plotRenderRegression   (     \$regression,     \$coefficients,     0,     1,     \$colorMap[ "Green" ],     "ExpRegression"   );   \$string =     "f( x ) = "      . number_format( \$coefficients[ 0 ], 4 )      . " exp( "      . number_format( \$coefficients[ 1 ], 4 )      . " x )";   // Place text   imageString   (     \$image,     2,     \$leftMargin + 2,     10,     \$string,     \$colorMap[ "Green" ]   );   // Output image   header( "Content-Type: image/png" );   imagePNG( \$image ); ?> ```

The basic mechanics of the polynomial regression class are used because in the linearized form, this function turns into a 1st degree polynomial. For this reason the number of coefficients does not need to be specified. The graph shows a noisy signal and the logarithmic curve calculated from y = a eb x. The actual noisy data used y = 0.18 e4 x.

### Weighted Regression.

One application of weighting is useful for assisting the linearized version of the power function. This function often responds poorly to noise and does not resolve to a good fit because the linearized version is being minimized, not the actual function. A workaround solution is to unequally weight the terms before solving.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/LinearizedRegression/PowRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/Weighting/ExponentiationWeighting.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/plot.php' );   \$data =     array     (       array( 0.05,0.00604730001 ),       array( 0.10,0.00368496403 ),       array( 0.15,0.00149732550 ),       array( 0.20,0.00750937272 ),       array( 0.25,0.01402765100 ),       array( 0.30,0.00460214218 ),       array( 0.35,0.01895682587 ),       array( 0.40,0.04611466211 ),       array( 0.45,0.06140241681 ),       array( 0.50,0.05753703495 ),       array( 0.55,0.10084107155 ),       array( 0.60,0.14016251588 ),       array( 0.65,0.18072751735 ),       array( 0.70,0.23557998528 ),       array( 0.75,0.30045147211 ),       array( 0.80,0.40979875947 ),       array( 0.85,0.51324006361 ),       array( 0.90,0.65069131055 ),       array( 0.95,0.81135826051 ),       array( 1.00,1.00234398314 ),     );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Add raw data to plot.   plotRenderData( \$data, \$colorMap[ "Red" ] );   \$plot->setX_Span( 0, 1 );   \$plot->setY_Span( 0, 1 );   plotAddScale();   // Render the points to image   \$plot->setCircleSize( 8 );   \$plot->renderPoints();   // Create two power-of regression classes.  One will be weighted, the other   // will not.   \$regression1 = new PowRegression();   \$regression2 = new PowRegression();   // Use exponentiation weighting on first regression class.   \$powerWeightedRegression = new ExponentiationWeighting( 4 );   \$regression1->setWeighting( \$powerWeightedRegression );   // Add all the data to both regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )   {     \$regression1->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );     \$regression2->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   }   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients1 = \$regression1->getCoefficients();   \$coefficients2 = \$regression2->getCoefficients();   printFunction( 0, \$colorMap[ "Red" ],  array( 1, 4 ), " true" );   printFunction( 1, \$colorMap[ "Green" ], \$coefficients1, " weighted" );   printFunction( 2, \$colorMap[ "Blue" ],  \$coefficients2, " unweighted" );   // Plot each of the curves.   plotRenderRegression   (     \$regression1,     \$coefficients1,     0,     1,     \$colorMap[ "Green" ],     "PowRegression"   );   // Plot each of the curves.   plotRenderRegression   (     \$regression2,     \$coefficients2,     0,     1,     \$colorMap[ "Blue" ],     "PowRegression"   );   // Output image   header( "Content-Type: image/png" );   imagePNG( \$image ); function printFunction( \$line, \$color, \$coefficients, \$text ) {   global \$image;   global \$leftMargin;   global \$topMargin;   \$functionText = "f( x ) = "       . number_format( \$coefficients[ 0 ], 6 )       . " x^"       . number_format( \$coefficients[ 1 ], 6 )       . \$text;   // Place text   imageString   (     \$image,     2,     \$leftMargin + 2,     \$topMargin + \$line * imagefontheight( 2 ),     \$functionText,     \$color   ); } ?> ```

Here exponentiation weighting is used to weight the term on the right side much more than those on the left.

After declaring an instance of the weighting class it can be assigned to the regression class using the setWeighting function. In this example the red dots represent noisy data. The blue plot is the standard linearized regression, which produces a poor fit. The green trace shows a weighted regression which fits much better.

### Uniquely weighted Regression.

In this example the unique weighting class is applied to a data set.

``` <?php   // Load the polynomial regression class.   require_once( 'RootDirectory.inc.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/PolynomialRegression/PolynomialRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/LinearizedRegression/PowRegression.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/Weighting/UniqueWeighting.php' );   require_once( \$RootDirectory . 'Includes/plot.php' );   // The data consists of three columns: x, y, and weight   // y is a noisy version of 0.5 x^2 - 0.2 x - 0.1.   \$data =     array     (       array( -1.00,  0.429082372117,  0.569892634364 ), array( -0.98,  0.436345120319,  0.636378047300 ),       array( -0.96,  0.946300417341,  0.223095864079 ), array( -0.94,  0.488585724422,  0.881383015552 ),       array( -0.92,  0.507196009419,  0.999988028306 ), array( -0.90,  0.521656533309,  0.894012248939 ),       array( -0.88, -0.432993635624,  0.001118592602 ), array( -0.86,  0.620720965283,  0.553547494305 ),       array( -0.84,  0.307855315214,  0.697994672029 ), array( -0.82, -0.093627344638,  0.129686879222 ),       array( -0.80,  0.359517424353,  0.939802287599 ), array( -0.78,  0.097336113317,  0.400537391569 ),       array( -0.76,  0.358160609220,  0.948817112269 ), array( -0.74,  0.285387206942,  0.894691015908 ),       array( -0.72, -0.274064421286,  0.075545117800 ), array( -0.70,  0.277578108855,  0.977899171137 ),       array( -0.68,  0.233848248484,  0.903244664976 ), array( -0.66,  0.658390358233,  0.206854608847 ),       array( -0.64,  0.221625014019,  0.966848287456 ), array( -0.62,  0.389360858446,  0.565279299925 ),       array( -0.60,  0.189432485206,  0.968631292625 ), array( -0.58,  0.180331548781,  0.988439483196 ),       array( -0.56,  0.164248498341,  0.986407549234 ), array( -0.54,  0.097501356331,  0.840434240181 ),       array( -0.52,  0.119582406844,  0.942294220586 ), array( -0.50,  0.076778447408,  0.862199166178 ),       array( -0.48,  0.111391748860,  0.999424863716 ), array( -0.46,  0.218096278888,  0.680783916604 ),       array( -0.44,  0.220927612807,  0.644686798859 ), array( -0.42,  0.050800637625,  0.937165911538 ),       array( -0.40,  0.133490346077,  0.795334545733 ), array( -0.38,  0.050325561687,  0.993636859372 ),       array( -0.36,  0.125172166553,  0.757622265013 ), array( -0.34,  0.028406160314,  0.992201877572 ),       array( -0.32, -0.632114422481,  0.043869542050 ), array( -0.30, -0.377195572311,  0.235805021628 ),       array( -0.28, -0.838761757082,  0.004577458194 ), array( -0.26,  0.025756790679,  0.884855470507 ),       array( -0.24, -0.129885768151,  0.712873973182 ), array( -0.22, -0.091615936230,  0.831072011789 ),       array( -0.20, -0.042166426936,  0.993514789242 ), array( -0.18, -0.731100282906,  0.031764573338 ),       array( -0.16, -0.074678621279,  0.942694995709 ), array( -0.14, -0.010666450671,  0.853229614140 ),       array( -0.12, -0.423784984117,  0.268354866384 ), array( -0.10, -0.014367098462,  0.828907433941 ),       array( -0.08, -0.079386336384,  0.995765001662 ), array( -0.06,  0.366272140354,  0.164141601459 ),       array( -0.04, -0.035810132564,  0.842864571750 ), array( -0.02,  0.173016713505,  0.390911788143 ),       array(  0.00, -0.190364896737,  0.752664850487 ), array(  0.02, -0.507882832432,  0.211620478052 ),       array(  0.04, -0.028640420194,  0.782351244421 ), array(  0.06, -0.107881081963,  0.993059365560 ),       array(  0.08, -0.024250171192,  0.757179404521 ), array(  0.10, -0.117606369137,  0.992201254363 ),       array(  0.12, -0.102269730291,  0.957039509328 ), array(  0.14, -1.106658103724,  0.000001537558 ),       array(  0.16, -0.120761711644,  0.995322178087 ), array(  0.18,  0.759083522349,  0.001776681974 ),       array(  0.20, -0.094338197702,  0.924973278381 ), array(  0.22, -0.486209665402,  0.254346420737 ),       array(  0.24, -0.343395568066,  0.466935365843 ), array(  0.26, -0.624836207159,  0.120088611245 ),       array(  0.28,  0.661480114573,  0.010899684735 ), array(  0.30, -0.504487870789,  0.227553169938 ),       array(  0.32, -0.112587885487,  0.999363791430 ), array(  0.34, -0.042354488563,  0.809960212155 ),       array(  0.36,  0.858765224438,  0.000039424725 ), array(  0.38,  0.710171402360,  0.006437824548 ),       array(  0.40,  0.196668403984,  0.347920792140 ), array(  0.42,  0.195016059482,  0.356678291182 ),       array(  0.44,  0.139607332753,  0.455098502332 ), array(  0.46,  0.732007467101,  0.006007975072 ),       array(  0.48, -0.062308039377,  0.945543652579 ), array(  0.50, -0.064679333277,  0.969356448998 ),       array(  0.52, -0.235834408073,  0.577937913809 ), array(  0.54, -0.062405883212,  0.999382477518 ),       array(  0.56,  0.295241751701,  0.274065460164 ), array(  0.58, -0.048056778183,  0.999229863239 ),       array(  0.60, -0.044261192643,  0.987270817986 ), array(  0.62,  0.183358354779,  0.483443937529 ),       array(  0.64, -0.338719007719,  0.320689084223 ), array(  0.66,  0.823250995966,  0.004294898834 ),       array(  0.68, -0.005131977430,  0.999004398299 ), array(  0.70,  0.538155869311,  0.101745616887 ),       array(  0.72, -0.062350563324,  0.784924183587 ), array(  0.74,  0.473045854508,  0.168886923699 ),       array(  0.76,  0.216363321550,  0.552249336945 ), array(  0.78, -0.559543696016,  0.060354519356 ),       array(  0.80,  0.060103424898,  0.999689757395 ), array(  0.82,  0.679733968306,  0.060451380394 ),       array(  0.84,  0.458152379065,  0.246076525234 ), array(  0.86,  0.968899880624,  0.002141706519 ),       array(  0.88,  0.262240173749,  0.611873181275 ), array(  0.90,  1.034976322902,  0.000729575505 ),       array(  0.92,  0.188591612117,  0.859023265306 ), array(  0.94,  1.037115142351,  0.001588705877 ),       array(  0.96,  1.006945736352,  0.004240064205 ), array(  0.98,  0.236838302140,  0.850251616410 ),       array(  1.00,  0.190190185081,  0.970858308627 ),     );   // Precision digits in BC math.   bcscale( 10 );   // Add raw data to plot.   plotRenderData( \$data, \$colorMap[ "Red" ] );   \$plot->setX_Span( -1, 1 );   \$plot->setY_Span( -1, 1 );   plotAddScale();   // Render the points to image.   \$plot->setCircleSize( 3 );   \$plot->renderPoints();   // Create two power-of regression classes.  One will be weighted, the other   // will not.   \$regression1 = new PolynomialRegression( 3 );   \$regression2 = new PolynomialRegression( 3 );   // Setup unique weighting on first regression.   \$weighting = new UniqueWeighting();   \$regression1->setWeighting( \$weighting );   // Add all the data to both regression analysis.   foreach ( \$data as \$dataPoint )   {     // Set weighting term before adding data.     \$weighting->setWeight( \$dataPoint[ 2 ] );     \$regression1->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );     \$regression2->addData( \$dataPoint[ 0 ], \$dataPoint[ 1 ] );   }   // Get coefficients for the polynomial.   \$coefficients1 = \$regression1->getCoefficients();   \$coefficients2 = \$regression2->getCoefficients();   \$coefficients3 = array( -0.1, -0.2,  0.5 );    // <- Actual coefficients.   // Display the functions for each plot.   \$y = \$imageHeight - \$bottomMargin;   printFunction( \$y, 1, \$colorMap[ "Red" ],   \$coefficients3 );   printFunction( \$y, 2, \$colorMap[ "Green" ], \$coefficients1 );   printFunction( \$y, 3, \$colorMap[ "Blue" ],  \$coefficients2 );   // Plot each of the curves.   plotRenderRegression( \$regression2, \$coefficients3,  -1, 1, \$colorMap[ "LightRed" ] );   plotRenderRegression( \$regression1, \$coefficients1,  -1, 1, \$colorMap[ "Green" ] );   plotRenderRegression( \$regression2, \$coefficients2,  -1, 1, \$colorMap[ "Blue" ] );   // Output image   header( "Content-Type: image/png" );   imagePNG( \$image ); function printFunction( \$y, \$line, \$color, \$coefficients ) {   global \$image;   global \$leftMargin;   \$functionText = "y = ";   foreach ( \$coefficients as \$power => \$coefficient )   {     if ( \$power > 0 )     {       if ( \$coefficient > 0 )         \$functionText .= " + ";       else       {         \$functionText .= " - ";         \$coefficient = -\$coefficient;       }     }     \$functionText .= number_format( \$coefficient, 2 );     if ( \$power > 0 )     {       \$functionText .= "x";       if ( \$power > 1 )         \$functionText .= "^" . \$power;     }   }   // Place text   imageString   (     \$image,     2,     \$leftMargin + 2,     \$y - \$line * imagefontheight( 2 ),     \$functionText,     \$color   ); } ?> ```

Here we have data from a 2nd degree polynomial function, and weighting data has been pre-calculated and placed in a third column. The UniqueWeighting class is used to add this custom weighting term to each value. For this example, the weighting term is an estimate of how likely the data point is to be accurate.

After declaring an instance of the weighting class it can be assigned to the regression class using the setWeighting function. Notice how this function is called before each data point is added to the regression. In this example the red dots represent noisy data and the red line a plot of the actual data. The blue line is the unweighted regression, and the green the weighted regression.

The weighting allows the more accurate data points to be more strongly considered, and thus the green line more accurately fits the original curve.

## Mathematics

The mathematics behind polynomial regression is broken into several sections, some of which is more detailed.

### Articles

This library grew out of the author's quest to understand the mathematics of various curve fitting techniques of which polynomial regression is one. There are several blog postings about the math behind this library: